Locals were given the option to leave the far north village Nyonoksa in a 36-hour period because it would be in the “danger zone” due to unspecified military activity.
Five buses were arranged to evacuate residents to Severodvinsk which is 25 miles away.
Residents of nearby Spoke village were also given the option to leave for their own safety with the threat ending at 6am on Wednesday.
“People should approach the buses, no lists compiled in advance,” locals were told.
The military activity – possibly a test or the recovery of debris from last year’s test – involved the 1st Scientific Centre of Military Unit 09703.
In August last year, seven people, five employees of Rosatom nuclear corporation and two Defence Ministry staff, died in an explosion of a nuclear-powered engine at Nyonoksa military test range.
There was speculation it was a test of the Burevestnik nuclear-powered cruise missile.
A special ship used for cleaning up nuclear waste – the Serebryanka – was seen in the area just before the evacuation notice was given, said one report.
One theory is Russia is seeking to recover the radioactive remains of a secret weapon in the area.
The Burevestnik is viewed as a game-changing “doomsday” weapon which Russian President Vladimir Putin unveiled in 2018.
It is seen by the Kremlin as a low-flying “stealth” cruise missile incapable of interception by existing Western air defences and delivering nuclear warheads anywhere around the globe.
Vladimir Putin has called it “a radically new type of weaponry” with “unlimited range and unlimited ability to manoeuvre”.
Last October three US diplomats were stopped seeking to enter Nyonoksa.